Thursday, June 20, 2024

What is inflation? Causes, Effects, and Prevention


What is inflation? Inflation is a complex concept where the rate at which the general cost of goods and services rises and the purchasing power of a currency declines. Therefore, knowing inflation and the risk of inflation in investment is essential. This section elaborates on inflation, including its causes, effects, and types.

Types of Inflation

There are three types of inflation: demand-pull, cost-push, and built-in inflation.

Demand-pull inflation occurs when demand exceeds supply. For example, demand-pull inflation occurs when the market for a holiday gift increases causing prices to rise. The rise happens when the need for specific goods and services grows faster than the economy’s capacity to supply them. Price rises following high demand and low supply.

Cost-push inflation occurs when production costs increase, forcing businesses to raise prices to maintain their profit margins. Higher raw material costs may increase business costs, creating cost-push inflation.

Built-in inflation: Sometimes called wage-price inflation, workers demand higher wages, and businesses raise prices to cover the increased labor costs. In a self-fulfilling cycle, prices increase following the demand for higher wages to keep up with the rise in cost. For example, a government increases wages for certain workers, leading businesses to raise prices to cover the increased labor costs.

What is inflation and types

What is inflation?
What is inflation?

Causes of inflation

As discussed above, various factors cause inflation. For example, changes in consumer behavior and government policies cause inflation.

Here are the different factors contributing to inflation.

Increase in demand: An increase in demand and a decrease in supply cause prices to rise.

Increase in production costs: An increase in the cost of producing goods and services may cause businesses to increase prices to maintain their profit margins. For example, companies may increase production costs following increased raw materials costs.

Increase in money supply: Due to changes in monetary policy, the money supply may increase, increasing the demand for goods and services and, in turn, forcing the prices of goods and services.

What is inflation and causes

Effects of inflation

Inflation impacts the economy. Inflation reduces the purchasing power of consumers or stimulates economic growth.

Adverse effects on purchasing power: Inflation reduces the purchasing power of money, causing buying fewer products with the same amount of money. This type of inflation affects people with fixed incomes whose salaries may not cope with price increases.

Adverse effects on savings and investments: Inflation affects savings and investments because returns on these may not increase at the same rate as inflation. Investors use stocks, bonds, and real estate and provide strategies for protecting assets against inflation.

Positive effects on borrowers: Inflation can benefit borrowers since they can repay loans with less valuable money than when they borrowed it.

What is inflation and effects

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What is inflation?

Measuring inflation

There are two most common measures of inflation:

Consumer Price Index (CPI): measures the change in the prices of a basket of household goods and services.

Producer Price Index (PPI): measures the price change of goods and services at the producer or wholesale level.

Controlling inflation

There are two tools to control inflation.

Monetary policy: Central banks use monetary policy to control inflation by adjusting interest rates, controlling the money supply, and regulating the banking system.

Fiscal policy: Governments use fiscal policy to control inflation by adjusting taxes and spending.


Inflation is a complex economic concept that affects every county and people on every scale. By understanding the idea and the controlling methods of inflation, a county could prepare for inflation.

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